Market risk, that is to say the variability of returns from one period to the next, or volatility, is one of the many risks faced by investors in equities, bonds and currencies. In the case of U.S. equities, the VIX by the Chicago Board Option exchange (CBOE) measures implied volatility, i.e. the level of volatility implied by the prices of S&P options. It is seen as a forward looking measure, in contrast to realized (or actual) volatility, which measures the variability of historical (or known) prices.
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